The ADDIE Model: Adventures in Instructional Design
November 19, 2014
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The ADDIE model is a framework that outlines the general processes used throughout a project's life cycle, from inception to completion. The model was established to help build a framework for the effective training, development or creation of a business product.
The model was developed in 1975 by Florida State University for the United States military to use in training individuals for specific jobs or tasks. Over the years, the model has been revised and made increasingly dynamic and interactive. It is now widely used by a variety of developers, designers, writers and project managers.
Phases of ADDIE
What exactly does the ADDIE model outline? The five phases of ADDIE are as follows, in order:
The idea of ADDIE is to perform each phase before going on to the next. When developing an end product — a technical document, a digital design, an instructional guide or presentation, etc. — developers must consider the needs of the end user. To develop something effectively, the ADDIE model can be used to determine why the product should exist, what it should "look" like, how it should be developed and executed and, upon feedback from a superior or end user, how it might change. By using the five processes of the ADDIE model, developers can determine the most efficient, effective ways to deliver business products, designs and functions.
ADDIE in a Nutshell
While the ADDIE model was made popular by instructional designers, the framework is found in a variety of industries where research, development and design occur. If a project manager asked a team to design an instructional plan for new employees, it might use ADDIE in the following way:
- Analysis: The team would meet and analyze the objective of the product, asking specific questions that would assist in the overall completion of the project. The team would ask questions such as "Who is the audience?", "What does the project need to deliver for the new employees?" and "What is the timeline for completion?"
- Design: The team would then begin to design, creating preliminary documentation, storyboards, content, interfaces, graphics and audio in order to effectively present its ideas to the new employees.
- Development: The team would organize all of its designs together into a coherent product that the new employees could use. In the Analysis phase, it would have decided whether this was a document, film, audio presentation, PowerPoint presentation or something else completely.
- Implementation: During this phase, the team would implement and execute its product and take notes about the effectiveness of its delivery to the new employees.
- Evaluation: An evaluation would then take place, in which the new recruits and project manager give the team constructive criticism. The team would then revise the project — sometimes going back through the ADDIE model from scratch — and create a better, more effective product based on the critical evaluation and feedback.
The ADDIE framework is an effective way to work through and outline the steps of creating a product. Each phase of the model is important to the process, allowing designers the ability to make decisions critical to the design and development of any end product.
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